During non-breeding season the male looks similar to the female but with some reddish feathers on the body. The most notable of these includes a series of shared stereotyped sexual displays that collectively set Oxyura (and probably Nomonyx) apart from all other waterfowl (Carbonell 1983, Marchant and Higgins 1990, McCracken et al. 1C,D). The lowland counterpart to the very similar Andean Duck; the two species may occur together in a few places, but Andean Duck is rare in lowlands, where Lake Duck is the default species. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. R.J. Reiter, B.K. After discovering unusually large cloacal swellings and correspondingly large penes in the first two specimens, I dissected and measured the intromittent organs and testes of the five birds collected on the canal (LSUMNS B34019, B34025, B34034, B34036, B34037). It also has the longest penis of any vertebrate in relation to body length. With the exception of a video sequence and numerous observations of copulating Australian Blue-billed Ducks (Oxyura australis) everting and preening (postcopulatory) similar-sized penes (E. Slater and P. J. Fullagar pers. Is it a coincidence that such a large structure has evolved in a diving duck with high wing loading that rarely flies? Mechanical eversion of the penis in its erect conformation was not possible given its unusual length and narrow width. The base of the penis in this species is generously ornamented with coarse spines, but the distal half is soft and brush-like. Notes on the Blue-billed Ducks at Lake Wendouree, Ballarat. As such, the presence of a penis in birds is a shared ancestral trait, and an explanation for multiple origins of the avian penis is not necessary. comm. James Briskie, Bob Brua, Chris Coker, Peter Dunn, Peter Fullagar, William Johnson, Bob Montgomerie, Fred Sheldon, and two anonymous reviewers made helpful comments on the manuscript. P.Mineau. I thank Daniel Blanco, Raúl Cardón, Claudio Chehébar, Raúl Clarke, Mike Christie, Donna Dittman, Martin Funes, Sergio Goldfeder, Manuel Nores, and Alejandre del Valle for their assistance locating stifftail ducks or help exporting and importing specimens. S. R.Derrickson, and Collection was made possible by the Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Neuquén, Delegación Regional Patagonia, Administración de Parques Nacionales, Dirección de Fauna y Flora Silvestre del Argentina, Dirección de Fauna Silvestre del Chubut, Dirección de Fauna Silvestre del Río Negro, Dirección de Fauna Silvestre del Santa Cruz, Louisiana Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, College of Agriculture, Museum of Natural Science, and School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries. Try to imagine that on a human male, and for the sake of context, imagine it being about eight feet long. The lake duck's penis is corkscrew-shaped and retracts into the abdomen when not required. In these groups, the penis (or male intromittent organ) arises from the ventral wall of the cloaca and generally is believed to facilitate sperm transfer via a series of longitudinal grooves (internal sperm ducts homologous to those in mammals are not present in birds). Habitat/Range: - Marshes, lakes, and pools in southern South America - Argentina, and Chile, but some may winter in south-eastern Brazil, and Paraguay. ... Lake Duck or Argentine Ruddy Duck 2 militaryairshows. Sexual selection and the intromittent organs of birds. Sperm transfer occurs via the mutual juxtaposition of the protruded cloacae, and there is relatively little contact between males and females compared with the process of coital penetration in mammals, reptiles, some species of fish, and most insects (Eckstein and Zuckerman 1956, Dowling and Savage 1960, Eberhard 1985). Its penis is a whopping 17 inches long, proportionally the longest of all vertebrates. Control of seasonal reproduction in temperate zone birds. annual development vs. year-round maintenance). For most species of birds, well-developed penes or intromittent organs are absent (e.g. Carcasses subsequently were placed on ice, frozen, and exported to the Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science (LSUMNS). Within the cloacal orifice, the base of the penis is clearly visible as an inverted blind-end tube arising from the ventral wall of the cloaca and penetrating well into the body cavity, not unlike the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) penis (King 1981). - Nature Picture Library argentine blue bill Carcasses were thawed three months later and prepared as museum skins (n = 6) and a skeletal specimen (n = 1). https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/993286/view/argentine-lake-duck-pair- ; see also Marchant and Higgins 1990), and unpublished observations of similar intromittent organs in Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis; R. B. Brua pers. Reproduction, energetics, and social structure of the Ruddy Duck. Species that experience greater sperm competition are expected to possess larger penes that may increase the probability of successful fertilization (Birkhead and Møller 1992, Briskie and Montgomerie 1997). A. D.Afton. Manually everting the organ in its erect conformation proved impossible given the absence of a vascular eversion mechanism (King 1981). Cerca qui la traduzione tedesco-spagnolo di argentine Lake duck 38 nel dizionario PONS! Dissection revealed that the cloacal swelling is composed primarily of a large ring of muscle; the base of the penis, seminal vesicles, and intestine are embedded within this muscle and constitute the remainder of the cloacal mass. A small foreskin-like structure with no spines and measuring 7.2 ± 1.3 mm (range 6 to 9 mm) arises dorsally from the base of the penis (see Fig. 1B). Present address: University of Alaska Museum, 907 Yukon Drive, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA.   Least Concern. Observations of these three Oxyura species suggest that well-developed intromittent organs are present in other members of the group. Image of british, wildlife, nature - 32163411 This is … In the animal kingdom, ducks and geese are famous for their extra-long penises. More than 500,000 images and video clips online, from tigers to turtles and elephants to sharks. 1983; but see Dunn et al. Nature Picture Library offers the best nature photographs and footage from the world's finest photographers, to license for commercial and creative use. Argentine Lake Duck: 17 Inches ... Curly and noodle-like, resembling its tail, the male pig has a notoriously impressive member. Mean testes dimensions were 40.8 ± 3.6 × 17.8 ± 1.8 mm for the left testis and 41.0 ± 2.3 × 17.2 ± 3.1 mm for the right testis (left length testis range 37 to 45 mm, left testis width range 15 to 20 mm; right testis length range 37 to 43 mm, right testis width range 14 to 22 mm; Fig. However, longitudinal dissection and subsequent inversion of the outer surface to view the inner surface revealed what is believed to be a close approximation of the everted, but nonetheless flaccid conformation (see below). At the base of the penis (outer sheath), the spines are numerous, large, well developed, and sharp. Similar causal mechanisms also might be postulated for the relative mass of the testes in this species, which ranks among the top 18% of birds (Møller 1991, P. Dunn unpubl. When everted, the penis thus conforms to the topology of a two-layered sheath connected to the cloaca at both ends, contiguous at the distal end, with an orifice at the tip and hollow in the middle (see King 1981). Ducks are known to detain the record of penis size amongst vertebrates, compared to … Find the perfect argentine lake duck stock photo. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. The presence of a well-developed penis in many dabbling and diving ducks may derive in part from their tendency to copulate in the water (Lake 1981). Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference, The invertebrates: Platyhelminthes and Rhynchocoela, Ruddy Ducks and other stifftails: Their biology and behavior, A.S. King, J. McClelland Eds. Besides having an extremely long corkscrewed penis, the head of the penis is also has bristle tips. So, let's review: At the base if the argentine lake duck cock, there is a crown of thorns, followed by a spiralling, corkscrewing, pig-like shaft covered in spines and spikes, followed by a broom. M. L.Gloutney, and T.R. So females seem to have evolved vaginas that make it hard for a male duck … Argentine lake duck Shaped like a corkscrew, some Argentine lake duck species have penises that can extend over 16 inches (42.5 cm). Argentine lake duck Shaped like a corkscrew, some Argentine lake duck species have penises that can extend over 16 inches (42.5 centimeters). Male bowerbirds … The inner surface is not visible in this conformation but forms a hollow tube running the entire internal length of the penis. Duck penises regrow every mating season. Thus, sperm competition probably also explains the contrast between the larger penes of dabbling ducks and the smaller penes of geese. comm. An unpaired male mallard (drake) attacks a hen, trying to force her to mate -- a struggle to escape ensues What needs to be explained is why birds have lost the penis repeatedly, and moreover, why it has been retained or more complexly developed in some groups like waterfowl. McCracken, The effects of sperm competition on testes size and intromittent organ morphology in waterfowl. Here the inverted penis was folded and enclosed within a two-layered peritoneal membrane measuring 25.5 ± 1.7 mm × 19.3 ± 2.2 mm at its two widest dimensions (n = 4; length range 24 to 28 mm, width range 17 to 22 mm; Figs. No need to register, buy now! For example, the one-pound, foot-long Argentinian lake duck has the longest of all with a member that is four inches longer than its body. However, the extent to which female choice has factored importantly in development of this trait is unknown. Several groups of birds, including ratites, screamers, waterfowl, and cracids, possess well-developed male copulatory organs (Forbes 1882, King 1981, Lake 1981). Conservation status (IUCN 3.1): The Argentine lake duck has something to quack about. ARGENTINE LAKE DUCK Oxyura vittata by: Paula Marie A. Cruz Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Genus: Oxyura Species: O. vittata Habitat shallow freshwater lakes marshes Diet Penis of a male lake duck Generally eats These displays, which can be quite vigorous and prolonged, typically are performed in the presence of many males and often in arena-like contexts. The use of the waterfowl penis as a means of sex and age identification of live birds is commonplace (e.g. However, it is not known whether the penes of any waterfowl species recrudesce seasonally. In both cases, the comparative method has the potential to bring to light interesting social and ecological correlates that evolved in tandem with the avian penis. Notes: - The Lake Duck is also sometimes called the Argentine Ruddy Duck, Argentine Blue-billed Duck, or Argentine Blue-bill and is a South American stiff-tail duck. Another probable, but not necessarily exclusive, explanation is that large ornamented penes have evolved in response to sperm competition within the female reproductive tract, such that males with larger penes achieve greater reproductive success than others (Waage 1979, Thornhill and Alcock 1983, Eberhard 1985). Without regard to size, such structures are uncommon in birds but are present in nonavian groups including crocodiles and turtles (King 1981). In most instances, the everted penis is clearly visible prior to and after copulation (D. K. Rushton and P. J. Fullagar pers. Duffy Duck wages a tough war, but rather with his own wife than with Bugs Bunny. The lake duck holds the Guinness World Record for having the largest avian reproductive organ, from a specimen in Córdoba, Argentina that had a penis measuring 42.5 centimetres (16.7 in). obs., R. B Brau pers. Handbook of Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctic birds. Lake duck - Argentijnse stekelstaart - Oxyura vittata on Vimeo I made a series of photographs from the second specimen to document both the position and conformation within the abdomen; dissection of the other four specimens revealed approximately identical features and no need for further photographs. Like other ducks, in order for fertilization to occur, the male lake duck inserts his penis (sometimes called the male intromittent organ) into the female's oviduct, and sperm travels up the penis to fertilise the female. Sperm competition in insects: Mechanisms and the potential for selection. F., Classification: - Family: Anatidae, Subfamily: Oxyurinae, Genus: Oxyura. Lake Duck at WWT Slimbridge. 1F). Academic Press, London. Spine density is highest on the ventral side of the penis, and their angles are such that I believe they embed into and clasp the wall of the female cloaca at the point of insertion, whereby the male may evert the remaining length of the penis. Mike Grogan offered assistance in the field, and Rich Olsen loaned a shotgun. Either scenario can be construed as energetically expensive (i.e. Size: - Typical Adult is 36-46cm (14-18in). Eversion to a centimeter or so, nonetheless, revealed a dense array of black-tipped, white spines at the base of the penis. Carcasses were thawed three months later and prepa… From this point distally, the penis tapered gradually to the opposite end where it inserted the cloaca ventral to the insertion point of the base of the penis. While most male birds have no external genitalia, male waterfowl have a phallus. comm. Social organization in Ruddy and Maccoa ducks. Male dinosaurs must have had the equipment for internal fertilization. Pair bonds that have been observed probably reflect nothing more than short-term relationships for copulation or mate guarding. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften. The male duck (or drake) has a black head, reddish-brown body, and blue bill. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland. Subsequent dissection and unraveling from the two membranes revealed the inverted penis to be an elongated, blind-end, tube-like structure attached to the cloaca at both ends. Limited information about the social behavior and mating habits of Argentine Lake Ducks suggests that peculiarities of size, ornamentation, and the potential for sperm displacement have evolved in conjunction with a promiscuous, group-display mating system. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The left testis was the larger of the two in all but one individual. While most birds don’t have a penis, ducks are one of the few birds that do. At the base of the penis, the spines are hardened and sharp. Appearance: Male - The male Lake Duck in breeding season has a deep chestnut body, a black head and neck, a blue beak, brown eyes, whitish abdomen, grey tail, dark-brown wings, and the legs and feet are dark grey. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, A.S. Parkes Ed. In waterfowl, the eversion mechanism is lymphatic, and the unusual length of the structure relative to its width prohibited pulling the entire length of the organ inside out. At this juncture, the width of the penis tube was 3.4 ± 0.5 mm (range 3 to 4 mm). Photo about Lake duck or Argentine Ruddy Duck, Oxyura vittata, single male on water, London, May 2011. 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